3-Month Enalapril Treatment in Pediatric Fontan Patients With Moderate to Good Systolic Ventricular Function

Lisette M. Harteveld, Nico A. Blom, Covadonga Terol Espinosa de Los Monteros, Irene M. Kuipers, Lukas A. J. Rammeloo, Mark G. Hazekamp, J. Gert van Dijk, Arend D. J. ten Harkel

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Abstract

Many Fontan patients with and without systolic ventricular dysfunction are being treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, despite its effectiveness remaining unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the short-term effect of enalapril on exercise capacity, vascular and ventricular function in pediatric Fontan patients with moderate-good systolic ventricular function. Fontan patients between 8 and 18 years with moderate-good systolic ventricular function and without previous ACE inhibitor treatment were included and were treated with enalapril for 3 months. During the first 2 weeks, the dosage was titrated according to systolic blood pressure (SBP). Exercise tests, ventricular function assessed by echocardiography, arterial stiffness measurements, and plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B–type natriuretic peptide assessed before and after a 3-month enalapril treatment period was compared. A total of 28 Fontan patients (median age 13.9 years, 6 to 15 years after Fontan operation) completed the study with a mean dosage of 0.3 ± 0.1 mg/kg/d. A total of 6 patients (21%) experienced a significant drop in SBP and 6 others (21%) experienced other adverse events. Enalapril treatment lowered the SBP (from 110 to 104 mmHg, p = 0.003) and levels of N-terminal pro-B–type natriuretic peptide (from 80 to 72 ng/L, p = 0.036). However, enalapril treatment did not improve exercise capacity, ventricular function, or arterial stiffness. In conclusion, short-term ACE inhibition has no beneficial effect in Fontan patients with moderate-good systolic ventricular function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-103
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of cardiology
Volume163
Early online date2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2022

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