3D-Reconstructed Contact Surface Area and Tumour Volume on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Improve the Prediction of Extraprostatic Extension of Prostate Cancer

Hans Veerman, Caroline M A Hoeks, Judith H Sluijter, Jari A van der Eijk, Thierry N Boellaard, Ton A Roeleveld, Tim M van der Sluis, Jakko A Nieuwenhuijzen, Esther Wit, Erik-Jan Rijkhorst, Martijn W Heymans, Maarten J A van Alphen, Robert L P van Veen, André N Vis, Henk G van der Poel, Pim J van Leeuwen

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This study is to determine whether the volume and contact surface area (CSA) of a tumour with an adjacent prostate capsule on MRI in a three-dimensional (3D) model that can predict side-specific extraprostatic extension (EPE) at radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients with localised prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent robot-assisted RP between July 2015 and March 2021 were included in this retrospective study. MRI-based 3D prostate models incorporating the PCa volume and location were reconstructed. The tumour volume and surface variables were extracted. For the prostate-to-tumour and tumour-to-prostate CSAs, the areas in which the distances were ≤ 1, ≤ 2, ≤ 3, ≤ 4, and ≤ 5 mm were defined, and their surface (cm2) were determined. Differences in prostate sides with and without pathological EPE were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis to find independent predictors of EPE. Overall, 75/302 (25%) prostate sides showed pathological EPE. Prostate sides with EPE had higher cT-stage, higher PSA density, higher percentage of positive biopsy cores, higher biopsy Gleason scores, higher radiological tumour stage, larger tumour volumes, larger prostate CSA, and larger tumour CSA (all p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the radiological tumour stage (p = 0.001), tumour volume (p < 0.001), prostate CSA (p < 0.001), and tumour CSA (p ≤ 0.001) were independent predictors of pathological EPE. A 3D reconstruction of tumour locations in the prostate improves prediction of extraprostatic extension. Tumours with a higher 3D-reconstructed volume, a higher surface area of tumour in contact with the prostate capsule, and higher surface area of prostate capsule in contact with the tumour are at increased risk of side-specific extraprostatic extension.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Digital Imaging
Early online date22 Dec 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Dec 2022


  • Extraprostatic extension
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostatectomy
  • Three-dimensional images

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