9.4T and 17.6T MRI of Retinoblastoma: Ex Vivo evaluation of microstructural anatomy and disease extent compared with histopathology: Ex Vivo evaluation of microstructural anatomy and disease extent compared with histopathology

Marcus C. de Jong, Pim de Graaf, Petra J. W. Pouwels, Jan-Willem Beenakker, Robin W. Jansen, Jeroen J. G. Geurts, Annette C. Moll, Jonas A. Castelijns, Paul van der Valk, Louise van der Weerd

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Background: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in childhood with a good prognosis in terms of mortality, but detailed information about tumor morphology and disease extent in retinoblastoma is important for treatment decision making. Purpose: To demonstrate ultrahigh-field MRI tumor morphology and tumor extent in retinoblastoma correlating with in and ex vivo images with histopathology. Study Type: Prospective case series. Population: Six retinoblastoma patients (median age 5.5 months, range 2–14) were prospectively included in this study. Median time between diagnosis and enucleation was 8 days (range 7–19). Field Strength/Sequence: In vivo pre-enucleation at 1.5T MRI with a circular surface coil. Ex vivo imaging (FLASH T1-weighted and RARE T2-weighted) was performed at field strengths of 9.4T and 17.6T. Assessment: After ex vivo imaging, the eyes were histopathologically analyzed and morphologically matched with MRI findings by three authors (two with respectively 14 and 4 years of experience in ocular MRI and one with 16 years of experience in ophthalmopathology). Results: Small submillimeter morphological aspects of intraocular retinoblastoma were successfully depicted with higher-resolution MRI and matched with histopathology images. With ex vivo MRI a small subretinal tumor seed (300 μm) adjacent to the choroid was morphologically matched with histopathology. Also, a characteristic geographical pattern of vital tumor tissue (400 μm) surrounding a central vessel interspersed with necrotic areas correlated with histopathology images. Tumor invasion into the optic nerve showed a higher signal intensity on T1-weighted higher-resolution MRI. Data Conclusion: Higher-resolution MRI allows for small morphological aspects of intraocular retinoblastoma and extraocular disease extent not visible on currently used clinical in vivo MRI to be depicted. Level of Evidence: 4. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1487–1497.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1487-1497
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of magnetic resonance imaging
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • 17.6 Tesla
  • 9.4 Tesla
  • Diagnostic accuracy
  • MR microscopy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Morphology
  • Optic nerve
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Tumor seeding

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