◆ Objective: Data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients are scarce. The objectives of this study were (1) to explore HRQOL of APD patients and compare it with HRQOL of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and a general population sample, and (2) to study the relationship between HRQOL assessment outcomes and background variables. ◆ Design: Home interviews of APD and CAPD patients. HRQOL, social-demographic, clinical, and treatment-related background data were collected at the interview and from patient charts. Multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to study the relationship of HRQOL assessment outcomes with background variables. ◆ Setting: Sixteen Dutch dialysis centers. ◆ Patients: Convenience sample of 37 APD patients and 59 CAPD patients matched for total time on dialysis. ◆ Main Outcome Measures: Four HRQOL instruments: Short-Form 36, EuroQol EQ-5D, Standard Gamble, and Time Trade Off. ◆ Results: Physical functioning of both APD and CAPD patients was impaired compared with the general population; mental functioning was not different. In multivariate analyses, the mental health of APD patients was found to be better than that of CAPD patients. In addition, APD patients were less anxious and depressed than CAPD patients. With respect to physical aspects of HRQOL and role-functioning, no differences were observed between APD and CAPD patients. Other variables to explain HRQOL assessment outcomes were age, the number of comorbid diseases, and primary kidney disease. ◆ Conclusions: HRQOL of APD patients is at least equal to HRQOL of CAPD patients.