A Framework for Assessing the Effect of Cardiac and Respiratory Motion for Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation Using a Digital Phantom With a 17-Segment Model: A STOPSTORM.eu Consortium Study

Raoul R.F. Stevens, Colien Hazelaar, Marta Bogowicz, Rachel M.A. ter Bekke, Paul G.A. Volders, Karolien Verhoeven, Dirk de Ruysscher, Joost J.C. Verhoeff, Martin F. Fast, Stefano Mandija, Jakub Cvek, Lukas Knybel, Pavel Dvorak, Oliver Blanck, Wouter van Elmpt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose: The optimal motion management strategy for patients receiving stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is not fully known. We developed a framework using a digital phantom to simulate cardiorespiratory motion in combination with different motion management strategies to gain insight into the effect of cardiorespiratory motion on STAR. Methods and Materials: The 4-dimensional (4D) extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was expanded with the 17-segment left ventricular (LV) model, which allowed placement of STAR targets in standardized ventricular regions. Cardiac- and respiratory-binned 4D computed tomography (CT) scans were simulated for free-breathing, reduced free-breathing, respiratory-gating, and breath-hold scenarios. Respiratory motion of the heart was set to population-averaged values of patients with VT: 6, 2, and 1 mm in the superior-inferior, posterior-anterior, and left-right direction, respectively. Cardiac contraction was adjusted by reducing LV ejection fraction to 35%. Target displacement was evaluated for all segments using envelopes encompassing the cardiorespiratory motion. Envelopes incorporating only the diastole plus respiratory motion were created to simulate the scenario where cardiac motion is not fully captured on 4D respiratory CT scans used for radiation therapy planning. Results: The average volume of the 17 segments was 6 cm3 (1-9 cm3). Cardiac contraction-relaxation resulted in maximum segment (centroid) motion of 4, 6, and 3.5 mm in the superior-inferior, posterior-anterior, and left-right direction, respectively. Cardiac contraction-relaxation resulted in a motion envelope increase of 49% (24%-79%) compared with individual segment volumes, whereas envelopes increased by 126% (79%-167%) if respiratory motion also was considered. Envelopes incorporating only the diastole and respiration motion covered on average 68% to 75% of the motion envelope. Conclusions: The developed LV-segmental XCAT framework showed that free-wall regions display the most cardiorespiratory displacement. Our framework supports the optimization of STAR by evaluating the effect of (cardio)respiratory motion and motion management strategies for patients with VT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)533-542
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number2
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes

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