A multicomponent positive psychology intervention for euthymic patients with bipolar disorder to improve mental well-being and personal recovery: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

Jannis T. Kraiss, Peter M. ten Klooster, Melissa Chrispijn, Anja Stevens, Bennard Doornbos, Ralph W. Kupka, Ernst T. Bohlmeijer

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Objective: Mental well-being and personal recovery are important treatment targets for patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week group multicomponent positive psychology intervention (PPI) for euthymic patients with BD as an adjunct to treatment as usual (TAU) compared to TAU alone. Methods: Patients with BD were randomized to receive TAU (n = 43) or the PPI in addition to TAU (n = 54). The primary outcome was well being measured with the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form. Personal recovery was measured with the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery. Data were collected at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Life chart interviews were conducted at 12 months to retrospectively assess recurrence of depression and mania. Results: Significant group-by-time interaction effects for well-being and personal recovery were found favouring the PPI. At post-treatment, between-group differences were significant for well-being (d = 0.77) and personal recovery (d = 0.76). Between-group effects for well-being were still significant at 6-month follow-up (d = 0.72). Effects on well-being and personal recovery within the intervention group were sustained until 12-month follow-up. Survival analyses showed no significant differences in time to recurrence. Conclusions: The multicomponent PPI evaluated in this study is effective in improving mental well-being and personal recovery in euthymic patients with BD and would therefore be a valuable addition to the current treatment of euthymic BD patients. The fact that the study was carried out in a pragmatic RCT demonstrates that this intervention can be applied in a real-world clinical setting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)683-695
Number of pages13
JournalBipolar disorders
Issue number8
Early online date2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • RCT
  • bipolar disorder
  • effect
  • personal recovery
  • positive psychology
  • well-being

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