A prediction model for response to immune checkpoint inhibition in advanced melanoma

Isabella A. J. van Duin, Rik J. Verheijden, Paul J. van Diest, Willeke A. M. Blokx, Mary-Ann el-Sharouni, Joost J. C. Verhoeff, Tim Leiner, Alfonsus J. M. van den Eertwegh, Jan Willem B. de Groot, Olivier J. van Not, Maureen J. B. Aarts, Franchette W. P. J. van den Berkmortel, Christian U. Blank, John B. A. G. Haanen, Geke A. P. Hospers, Djura Piersma, Rozemarijn S. van Rijn, Astrid A. M. van der Veldt, Gerard Vreugdenhil, Michel W. J. M. WoutersMarion A. M. Stevense-den Boer, Marye J. Boers-Sonderen, Ellen Kapiteijn, Karijn P. M. Suijkerbuijk, Sjoerd G. Elias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Predicting who will benefit from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) in patients with advanced melanoma is challenging. We developed a multivariable prediction model for response to ICI, using routinely available clinical data including primary melanoma characteristics. We used a population-based cohort of 3525 patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma treated with anti-PD-1-based therapy. Our prediction model for predicting response within 6 months after ICI initiation was internally validated with bootstrap resampling. Performance evaluation included calibration, discrimination and internal–external cross-validation. Included patients received anti-PD-1 monotherapy (n = 2366) or ipilimumab plus nivolumab (n = 1159) in any treatment line. The model included serum lactate dehydrogenase, World Health Organization performance score, type and line of ICI, disease stage and time to first distant recurrence—all at start of ICI—, and location and type of primary melanoma, the presence of satellites and/or in-transit metastases at primary diagnosis and sex. The over-optimism adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.64–0.66). The range of predicted response probabilities was 7%–81%. Based on these probabilities, patients were categorized into quartiles. Compared to the lowest response quartile, patients in the highest quartile had a significantly longer median progression-free survival (20.0 vs 2.8 months; P <.001) and median overall survival (62.0 vs 8.0 months; P <.001). Our prediction model, based on routinely available clinical variables and primary melanoma characteristics, predicts response to ICI in patients with advanced melanoma and discriminates well between treated patients with a very good and very poor prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1760-1771
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of cancer
Issue number10
Early online date2024
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2024


  • immune checkpoint inhibition
  • immunotherapy
  • melanoma
  • prediction model
  • response prediction

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