Hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy (HIVEC)—whereby the bladder is heated to ± 43 °C during a chemotherapy instillation—can improve outcomes of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treatments. Experiments in animal models are required to explore new hyperthermia based treatments. Existing HIVEC devices are not suitable for rodents or large-scale animal trials. We present a HIVEC setup compatible with orthotopic rat models. An externally heated chemotherapeutic solution is circulated in the bladder through a double-lumen catheter with flow rates controlled using a peristaltic pump. Temperature sensors in the inflow channel, bladder and outflow channel allow temperature monitoring and adjustments in real-time. At a constant flow rate of 2.5 mL/min the system rapidly reaches the desired bladder temperature of 42–43 °C with minimal variability throughout a one-hour treatment in a rat bladder phantom, as well as in euthanised and live rats. Mean intraluminal bladder temperatures were 42.92 °C (SD = 0.15 °C), 42.45 °C (SD = 0.37 °C) and 42.52 °C (SD = 0.09 °C) in the bladder phantom, euthanised, and live rats respectively. Thermal camera measurements showed homogenous heat distributions over the bladder wall. The setup provides well-controlled thermal dose and the upscaling needed for performing large scale HIVEC experiments in rats.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7017
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022

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