Adaptation and validation study of the Indonesian version of the Global Psychotrauma Screen in an undergraduate student population

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Background: The high incidence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in Indonesia warrants early identification of those with probable trauma-related disorders in order to tailor prevention and intervention for trauma-related symptoms. Objectives: This study aims to adapt and validate a novel brief transdiagnostic screener, the Global Psychotrauma Screen (GPS), in Indonesian undergraduate students. Methods: An online survey was administered among Indonesian undergraduate students (N = 322). Exploratory factor analysis, reliability analyses, clinical validity analyses, and correlational analyses were performed to evaluate the construct validity, reliability, clinical validity, and convergent-divergent validity of the Indonesian GPS. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to assess the relationship between risk factors and trauma-related symptoms. The relationship between four categories of trauma-related symptom severity and social/work functioning was measured using Analysis of Covariance. Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single-factor solution. The Indonesian GPS demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest correlation, and absolute agreement, indicating good reliability. The Indonesian GPS also had an acceptable area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity for a probable diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Complex-PTSD (CPTSD), depression, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We also established evidence for the convergent and divergent validity of GPS. The GPS risk factors (low psychological resilience, other stressful events, history of mental illness, and low social support) contributed to predicting trauma-related symptoms after controlling for gender, age, employment status, and faculty background. Additionally, in comparison to participants from the mild and low categories of GPS symptoms scores, participants from the severe and moderate category reported impaired lowered social/work functioning. Conclusion: The current findings indicate that the Indonesian GPS is a valid and reliable transdiagnostic trauma screener for Indonesian undergraduate students. This first comprehensive validation of the GPS in Indonesia calls for more research in Lower-middle Income Countries (LMICs) as a way towards prevention and early intervention for trauma-related symptoms.
Original languageEnglish
Article number152485
JournalComprehensive Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2024


  • Cross-cultural adaptation
  • Transdiagnostic approach
  • Trauma screening
  • Undergraduate students
  • Validation

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