Advanced liver fibrosis by transient elastography, Fibrosis 4, and alanine aminotransferase/platelet ratio index among Asian hepatitis C with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection: Role of vitamin D levels

Anchalee Avihingsanon, Salyavit Jitmitraparp, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Reshmie A. Ramautarsing, Tanakorn Apornpong, Supunee Jirajariyavej, Opass Putcharoen, Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Srunthron Akkarathamrongsin, Yong Poovorawan, Gail V. Matthews, Joep M. A. Lange, Kiat Ruxrungtham

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Background and Aim: Vitamin D insufficiency plays an important role in liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. We assessed liver fibrosis by transient elastography and 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] status in HCV-infected patients, with (HIV/HCV) or without HIV co-infection (HCV) from Thailand. Methods: Fibrosis stage was defined as mild ( <7.1 kPa); moderate (7.2-9.4 kPa); severe (9.5-14 kPa), and cirrhosis (> 14 kPa). Hypovitaminosis D was defined as 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors for significant fibrosis. Serum 25(OH)D levels, HCV genotypes (GT), interleukin-28B (IL28B) and HCV-RNA were assessed. Results: A total of 331 HCV and 130 HIV/HCV patients were enrolled (70% male, 35% people who inject drugs [PWIDs]). HCV GT distribution was as follows: GT3 47%, GT1 34%, GT6 17%. IL-28B CC genotype (rs12979860) were found in 88% of HIV/HCV and 85% of HCV. In HCV, liver fibrosis was mild in 56.5%; moderate in 18.4%; severe in 12.4%; and cirrhosis in 12.7%. In HIV/HCV, these figures were 30.6%, 27.8%, 17.6%, and 24.1%, respectively. Patients with significant fibrosis were more often male, older, with HIV infection, hypovitaminosis D, and less likely to be infected with GT6. Factors associated with significant fibrosis by multivariate analysis were HIV infection (adjusted odd ratio [95% confidential interval]: 2.67, 1.20-5.93), P = 0.016, Fib-4 score > 1.45 (6.30, 2.70-14.74), P <0.001, and hypovitaminosis D (2.48, 1.09-5.67), P = 0.031. GT 6 was less likely to have advanced liver fibrosis (0.17, 0.05-0.65), P = 0.01. Conclusions: HIV infection, Fib-4 score > 1.45, and hypovitaminosis D are strong and independent predictors for the presence of advanced fibrosis in our HCV-infected patients. These data highlight the urgent need of HCV treatment and vitamin D supplement in resource-limited settings
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1706-1714
JournalJournal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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