Background: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe complication of blood transfusion that is thought of as a two-hit event: first the underlying patient condition (e.g., sepsis), and then the transfusion. Transfusion factors include human leukocyte antigen antibodies or biologic response modifiers (BRMs) accumulating during storage. Preclinical studies show an increased TRALI risk with longer stored platelets, clinical studies are conflicting. We aim to discover whether longer platelet concentrate (PC) storage time increases TRALI risk in a controlled human experiment. Study Design and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 18 healthy male volunteers received a first hit of experimental endotoxemia (2 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide), and a second hit of fresh (2-day old) or aged (7-day old) autologous PC, or physiological saline. After 6 h, changes in TRALI pathways were determined using spirometry, chest X-ray, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Results: All subjects reacted adequately to lipopolysaccharide infusion and satisfied SIRS criteria (increased pulse [>90/min] and temperature [>38°C]). There were no differences between the saline, fresh, and aged PC groups in BAL-fluid protein (95 ± 33 μg/ml; 83 ± 21 μg/ml and 104 ± 29 μg/ml, respectively) and relative neutrophil count (1.5 ± 0.5%; 1.9 ± 0.8% and 1.3 ± 0.8%, respectively), nor in inflammatory BAL-fluid BRMs (Interleukin-6, CXCL8, TNFα (Formula presented.) and myeloperoxidase), clinical respiratory parameters, and spirometry results. All chest X-rays were normal. Conclusions: In a human endotoxemia model of autologous platelet transfusion, with an adequate first hit and platelet storage lesion, transfusion of 7-day-old PC does not increase pulmonary inflammation compared with 2-day-old PC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2490-2501
Number of pages12
Issue number12
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • autologous blood transfusion
  • bronchoalveolar lavage
  • platelet activation
  • platelet transfusion
  • transfusion-related acute lung injury

Cite this