An integrated toolbox to profile macrophage immunometabolism

Sanne G. S. Verberk, Kyra E. de Goede, Friederike S. Gorki, Xanthe A. M. H. van Dierendonck, Rafael J. Argüello, Jan van den Bossche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Macrophages are dynamic immune cells that can adopt several activation states. Fundamental to these functional activation states is the regulation of cellular metabolic processes. Especially in mice, metabolic alterations underlying pro-inflammatory or homeostatic phenotypes have been assessed using various techniques. However, researchers new to the field may encounter ambiguity in choosing which combination of techniques is best suited to profile immunometabolism. To address this need, we have developed a toolbox to assess cellular metabolism in a semi-high-throughput 96-well-plate-based format. Application of the toolbox to activated mouse and human macrophages enables fast metabolic pre-screening and robust measurement of extracellular fluxes, mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, and glucose and lipid uptake. Moreover, we propose an application of SCENITH technology for ex vivo metabolic profiling. We validate established activation-induced metabolic rewiring in mouse macrophages and report new insights into human macrophage metabolism. By thoroughly discussing each technique, we hope to guide readers with practical workflows for investigating immunometabolism.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100192
JournalCell Reports Methods
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2022


  • immunometabolism
  • macrophages
  • metabolism
  • semi-high throughput screening
  • toolbox

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