Study Objective: In girls born with an anorectal malformation (ARM), anatomical gynecological anomalies (GA) may be present and might need treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of GA in girls born with ARM in our cohort. Additionally, diagnostic timing and methods for GA were assessed. Methods: A retrospective mono-center study was performed from January 2000 to December 2022. All patients assigned female at birth were eligible for inclusion. GA were classified according to ESHRE/ESGE classification. Outcomes were the number of girls with GA with subsequent screening methods, factors associated with GA, and GA requiring treatment. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the association between baseline characteristics and the presence of GA. Results: In total, 128 girls were included, of whom 30 (24.1%) had additional GA, with vaginal anomalies being present most often (n = 17). Fifty-six patients (43.8%) underwent full screening, and this number improved over time (37.7% before 2018 vs 72.7% after 2018; P = .003). Thirteen of 30 patients (43.3%) required surgical treatment for their GA, without the occurrence of postoperative complications. Conclusion: Additional GA were present in almost a quarter of the girls born with an ARM, with vaginal anomalies most often identified. Despite GA being most often found in patients with cloacal malformations, these anomalies were also identified in patients with other ARM types. Surgical treatment was required in almost half of the girls with GA. Therefore, this study emphasizes the importance of screening for GA in patients with an ARM, regardless of the ARM type.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
Early online date2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2023


  • Anorectal malformation
  • Cervical anomaly
  • Gynecological anomalies
  • Screening
  • Surgery
  • Uterine anomaly
  • Vaginal anomaly

Cite this