Assessment of foot deformities in individuals with cerebral palsy using weight-bearing CT

R. H. H. Wellenberg, W. Schallig, P. Steenbergen, P. den Tex, J. G. G. Dobbe, G. J. Streekstra, M. M. E. H. Witbreuk, A. I. Buizer, M. Maas

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Objective: The aims of this study were to visualize and quantify relative bone positions in the feet of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) with a foot deformity and compare bone positions with those of typically developed (TD) controls. Materials and methods: Weight-bearing CT images of 14 individuals with CP scheduled for tendon transfer and/or bony surgery and of 20 TD controls were acquired on a Planmed Verity WBCT scanner. Centroids of the navicular and calcaneus with respect to the talus were used to quantify foot deformities. All taluses were aligned and the size and dimensions of the individuals’ talus were scaled to correct for differences in bone sizes. In order to visualize and quantify variations in relative bone positions, 95% CI ellipsoids and standard deviations in its principle X-, Y-, and Z-directions were determined. Results: In individuals with CP (age 11–17), a large variation in centroid positions was observed compared to data of TD controls. Radiuses of the ellipsoids, representing the standard deviations of the 95% CI in the principle X-, Y-, and Z-directions, were larger in individuals with CP compared to TD controls for both the calcaneus (3.16 vs 1.86 mm, 4.26 vs 2.60 mm, 9.19 vs 3.60 mm) and navicular (4.63 vs 1.55 mm, 5.18 vs 2.10 mm, 16.07 vs 4.16 mm). Conclusion: By determining centroids of the calcaneus and navicular with respect to the talus on WBCT images, normal and abnormal relative bone positions can be visualized and quantified in individuals with CP with various foot deformities.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSkeletal radiology
Early online date2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2022


  • 3-D imaging
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Cone-beam computed tomography
  • Foot deformities

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