6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Oxidative stress may be a mechanistic link between affective disorders (depressive and anxiety disorders) and somatic disease. Advanced glycation end products are produced under the influence of oxidative stress and in the skin (measured by skin autofluorescence [SAF]) serve as marker for cumulative oxidative stress. Aim of study was to determine whether SAF is associated with presence of affective disorders. Methods: Participants in the Lifelines cohort study who had completed the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for affective disorders and a SAF-measurement were included. Cross-sectional associations between SAF and presence of the following psychiatric disorders were investigated through logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors, cardiometabolic parameters, and somatic morbidities: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder or social phobia. Results: Of 81,041 included participants (41.7% male, aged 18–91 years), 6676 (8.2%) were cases with an affective disorder. SAF was associated with presence of affective disorders (OR=1.09 [95%CI 1.07–1.12], P<.001 adjusted for sociodemographic factors). Association with major depressive disorder was strongest and significant after adjustment for all confounders (OR=1.31 [95%CI 1.25–1.36], P<.001 in the crude model; OR=1.12 [95%CI 1.07–1.17], P<.001 in the fully adjusted model). For other disorders, associations lost significance after adjustment for cardiometabolic parameters and somatic morbidities. Limitations: Persons of non-Western descent and severely (mentally or physically) ill individuals were underrepresented. Conclusions: SAF was associated with presence of affective disorders, suggesting a link between these disorders and cumulative oxidative stress. For major depressive disorder, this association was strongest and independent of sociodemographic, cardiometabolic factors, and somatic morbidities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)230-237
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of affective disorders
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • Advanced glycation end products
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Oxidative stress

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