Importance: Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with the risk of colonization with drug-resistant bacteria; however, possible confounding by lifestyle-associated factors and disease severity casts doubt on this association, and whether the risk is dose dependent is not known. Objectives: To assess the association between PPI use and the risk of acquiring drug-resistant Enterobacterales and to examine interactions with possible microbiome-altering agents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study involved 2239 hospitalized adult (aged ≥18 years) patients identified from the microbiology laboratory database of Amsterdam University Medical Centers between December 31, 2018, and January 6, 2021. Patients in the case group had newly detected extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (identified by clinical specimens). Risk-set sampling was used to assign patients with negative results for ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales to the control group, who were then matched on a 5:1 ratio with patients in the case group by age and culture date. A second validation case-control study included matched pairs (1:1 ratio; 94 in each group) of patients who were prospectively enrolled. Exposures: Proton pump inhibitor use and clinical data at 30 days (primary exposure) and 90 days (secondary exposure) before the date of culture. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) of ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales acquisition by PPI dose and time risk windows (30 days for the primary outcome and 90 days for the secondary outcome) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results: Among 2239 hospitalized patients (51.1% male; mean [SD] age, 60.9 [16.7] years), 374 were in the case group (51.6% male; mean [SD] age, 61.1 [16.5] years) and 1865 were in the matched control group (51.0% male; mean [SD] age, 60.9 [16.7] years). The aIRR for PPI use overall was 1.48 (95% CI, 1.15-1.91) at 30 days. Sensitivity analyses and the analysis of the pair-matched study with prospectively enrolled patients (aIRR, 2.96, 95% CI, 1.14-7.74) yielded similar results; findings were consistent in subgroups and corroborated by a negative-control exposure analysis. No association with microbiome-disturbing agents was found; laxatives and antibiotics were independently associated with a more than 2-fold increase in the risk of acquisition (antibiotics: aIRR, 2.78 [95% CI, 2.14-3.59]; laxatives: aIRR, 2.26 [95% CI. 1.73-2.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, after careful control for confounding and sensitivity analyses, PPI use was associated with increases in the risk of acquiring ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales among adult hospitalized patients. These findings emphasize the need for judicious use of PPIs..
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E230470
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2023

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