Bimanual Fundamentals: Validation of a New Curriculum for Virtual Reality Training of Laparoscopic Skills

Martijn P. H. van Ginkel, Marlies P. Schijven, Wilhelmina M. U. van Grevenstein, Henk W. R. Schreuder

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background. To determine face and construct validity for the new Bimanual Fundamentals curriculum for the Simendo® Virtual Reality Laparoscopy Simulator and prove its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool for surgical resident’s advanced psychomotor skills. Methods. 49 participants were recruited: 17 medical students (novices), 15 residents (intermediates), and 17 medical specialists (experts) in the field of gynecology, general surgery, and urology in 3 tertiary medical centers in the Netherlands. All participants performed the 5 exercises of the curriculum for 3 consecutive times on the simulator. Intermediates and experts filled in a questionnaire afterward, regarding the reality of the simulator and training goals of each exercise. Statistical analysis of performance was performed between novices, intermediates, and experts. Parameters such as task time, collisions/displacements, and path length right and left were compared between groups. Additionally, a total performance score was calculated for each participant. Results. Face validity scores regarding realism and training goals were overall positive (median scores of 4 on a 5-point Likert scale). Participants felt that the curriculum was a useful addition to the previous curricula and the used simulator would fit in their residency programs. Construct validity results showed significant differences on the great majority of measured parameters between groups. The simulator is able to differentiate between performers with different levels of laparoscopic experience. Conclusions. Face and construct validity for the new Bimanual Fundamental curriculum for the Simendo virtual reality simulator could be established. The curriculum is suitable to use in resident’s training programs to improve and maintain advanced psychomotor skills.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-533
Number of pages11
JournalSurgical Innovation
Issue number5
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • laparoscopy
  • minimally invasive surgery
  • simulation
  • training
  • validity
  • virtual reality

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