Brief report: Cognitive functioning in children with Tourette's syndrome with and without comorbid ADHD

Nico Brand, Rinie Geenen, Milo Oudenhoven, Bastiaan Lindenborn, Annette Van Der Ree, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Jan K. Buitelaar

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Objective: To examine whether patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) with and without comorbid attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ in cognitive functioning and whether a higher level of cognitive functioning is associated with severity of TS symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Methods: Cognitive functioning, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning were examined in 40 patients (33 boys, 7 girls; age range 6-18 years) with TS, of whom 17 had the comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. Results: Patients with a comorbid ADHD diagnosis evidenced poorer performance than those with TS alone with respect to severity of TS symptoms, psychosocial functioning, verbal and performance intelligence, and word fluency, but not on tests of cognitive flexibility. Psychosocial functioning was predicted by symptom severity, but not by intelligence or fluency. Conclusions: Results confirm prior findings that comorbid ADHD is associated with more TS symptoms and worse psychosocial and cognitive functioning, and motivate whether cognitive flexibility plays a role in moderating the deleterious psychosocial effects of Tourette's syndrome and ADHD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-208
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of pediatric psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2002


  • ADHD
  • Adolescents
  • Children
  • Cognitive flexibility
  • Executive functions
  • Tourette's syndrome

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