Calprotectin (S100A8/9) as serum biomarker for clinical response in proof-of-concept trials in axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis

Maureen C. Turina, Nataliya Yeremenko, Jacqueline E. Paramarta, Leen de Rycke, Dominique Baeten

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Abstract

Biomarkers complementing clinical evaluations may help to reduce the length and size of proof-of-concept (PoC) trials aimed to obtain quick "go/no go" decisions in the clinical development of new treatments. We aimed to identify and validate serum biomarkers with a high sensitivity to change upon effective treatment in spondyloarthritis (SpA) PoC trials. The candidate biomarkers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), pentraxin-3 (PTX-3), alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha-2-MG), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), calprotectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in healthy controls (n = 20) and SpA patients before and after 2 weeks of infliximab (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19) treatment in cohort 1. Clinical outcome was evaluated at week 12. Results were validated in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with infliximab (cohort 2, n = 21) and peripheral SpA with etanercept (cohort 3, n = 20). Serum levels of calprotectin, hs-CRP, PTX-3, VEGF (all P  < 0.001) and MMP-3 (P = 0.062), but not IL-6 and alpha-2-MG, were increased in SpA versus healthy controls. Treatment with infliximab, but not placebo, significantly decreased calprotectin (P  < 0.001) and hs-CRP (P  < 0.001) levels, with a similar trend for MMP-3 (P = 0.063). The standardized response mean (SRM), which reflects the ability to detect changes over time, was high for calprotectin (-1.26), good for hs-CRP (-0.96) and moderate for MMP-3 (-0.52). Calprotectin and hs-CRP, but not MMP-3, were good biomarkers for treatment response in axial and peripheral SpA as evaluated and confirmed in cohort 2 and 3 respectively. Calprotectin and hs-CRP are good serum biomarkers with high sensitivity to change upon effective treatment at the group level in small-scale, short term PoC trials in SpA
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413
JournalArthritis research & therapy
Volume16
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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