Background and Objectives: Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a pulmonary transfusion complication and a leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. Volume overload and rising hydrostatic pressure as a consequence of transfusion are seen as the central pathway leading to TACO. A possible preventative measure for TACO could be the use of low-volume blood products like volume-reduced lyophilized plasma. We hypothesize that volume-reduced lyophilized plasma decreases circulatory overload leading to a reduced pulmonary capillary pressure and can therefore be an effective strategy to prevent TACO. Materials and Methods: A validated two-hit animal model in rats with heart failure was used. Animals were randomized to receive 4 units of either solvent-detergent pooled plasma (SDP) as control, standard volume lyophilized plasma (LP-S) or hyperoncotic volume-reduced lyophilized plasma (LP-VR). The primary outcome was the difference between pre-transfusion and post-transfusion left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (ΔLVEDP). Secondary outcomes included markers for acute lung injury. Results: LVEDP increased in all randomization groups following transfusion. The greatest elevation was seen in the group receiving LP-VR (+11.9 mmHg [5.9–15.6]), but there were no significant differences when compared to groups receiving either LP-S (+6.3 mmHg [2.9–13.4], p = 0.29) or SDP (+7.7 mmHg [4.5–10.5], p = 0.55). There were no significant differences in markers for acute lung injury, such as pulmonary wet/dry weight ratios, lung histopathology scores or PaO2/FiO2 ratio between the three groups. Conclusion: Transfusion with hyperoncotic volume-reduced plasma did not attenuate circulatory overload compared to standard volume plasma and was therefore not an effective preventative strategy for TACO in this rat model.
- lyophilized plasma
- pulmonary oedema
- pulmonary transfusion reaction
- transfusion-associated circulatory overload