Objective: EEG and MEG studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) related dementia (PDD) have shown a slowing of resting-state, oscillatory activity compared to non demented PD. Aim of the present MEG study was to determine whether treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine would reverse this slowing of resting-state activity in PDD patients. Methods: In eight PDD patients, whole head MEG was recorded in a resting-state condition before and after treatment with rivastigmine. Relative spectral power was calculated in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands in fronto-central, parieto-occipital and temporal regions. Results: After treatment with rivastigmine, PDD patients demonstrated an increase in relative power in the alpha range in parieto-occipital and temporal regions together with a diffuse increase in beta power. Furthermore, a decrease of delta power in fronto-central and parieto-occipital regions was found. Conclusions: Treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine at least partly counteracts the slowing of resting-state brain activity that is known to occur in PD related dementia. Significance: Our observations emphasize the prominent role of degeneration of the cholinergic system in the pathophysiology of dementia in PD. In the future, MEG might contribute to the selection of PD patients who may optimally benefit from cholinergic treatment. © 2009 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.