Circulating Valpha24+Vbeta11+ NKT cell numbers and dendritic cell CD1d expression in hepatitis C virus infected patients

Hans J J van der Vliet, Johan W Molling, B Mary E von Blomberg, Wendy Kölgen, Anita G Stam, Tanja D de Gruijl, Chris J Mulder, Harry L A Janssen, Nobusuke Nishi, Alfons J M van den Eertwegh, Rik J Scheper, Carin J M van Nieuwkerk

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38 Citations (Scopus)


CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are involved in the regulation of various immune responses, and have been shown to inhibit viral replication in animal hepatitis models when activated by the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer, KRN7000). Previous studies have indicated that alpha-GalCer-induced activation of the immune system requires both CD1d expression by antigen-presenting cells as well as (normal) numbers of NKT cells. Discrepancies exist over circulating numbers of human invariant Valpha24+Vbeta11+ NKT cells during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, by cross-sectional analysis and longitudinal analysis of patients undergoing effective combination antiviral therapy, we demonstrate that circulating Valpha24+Vbeta11+ NKT cell numbers are not decreased during active HCV infection. Importantly, as we also show that CD1d is expressed at comparable levels by peripheral blood monocytes and CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells (DC) of healthy individuals and HCV-infected patients, these data indicate that all ingredients for evaluating the antiviral effects of the Valpha24+Vbeta11+ NKT cell ligand alpha-GalCer in HCV-infected patients are present.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-189
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Immunology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2005


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antigens, CD1/biosynthesis
  • Antigens, CD1d
  • Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dendritic Cells/immunology
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Hepacivirus/immunology
  • Hepatitis C/drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use
  • Killer Cells, Natural/immunology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • RNA, Viral/blood
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Ribavirin/therapeutic use
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology

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