Clinical Prediction Models for Recurrence in Patients with Resectable Grade 1 and 2 Sporadic Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review

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Recurrence after resection in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNET) has a considerable impact on overall survival. Accurate risk stratification will tailor optimal follow-up strategies. This systematic review assessed available prediction models, including their quality. This systematic review followed PRISMA and CHARMS guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to December 2022 for studies that developed, updated, or validated prediction models for recurrence in resectable grade 1 or 2 NF-pNET. Studies were critically appraised. After screening 1883 studies, 14 studies with 3583 patients were included: 13 original prediction models and 1 prediction model validation. Four models were developed for preoperative and nine for postoperative use. Six models were presented as scoring systems, five as nomograms, and two as staging systems. The c statistic ranged from 0.67 to 0.94. The most frequently included predictors were tumor grade, tumor size, and lymph node positivity. Critical appraisal deemed all development studies as having a high risk of bias and the validation study as having a low risk of bias. This systematic review identified 13 prediction models for recurrence in resectable NF-pNET with external validations for 3 of them. External validation of prediction models improves their reliability and stimulates use in daily practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1525
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • grade 1
  • grade 2
  • non-functional
  • pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor
  • prediction model
  • recurrence
  • resectable

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