Concurrent validity and reliability of a low-cost gait analysis system for assessment of spatiotemporal gait parameters

Maijke van Bloemendaal, Anita Beelen, Rob F. M. Kleissen, Alexander C. Geurts, Frans Nollet, Sicco A. Bus

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11 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: To determine the concurrent validity and reliability of a low-cost spatiotemporal gait analysis system for clinical use in rehabilitation medicine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Thirty-three healthy adults. METHODS: The spatiotemporal gait analysis system consists of a video camera placed perpendicular to a 10-m walkway and calibrated for spatial reference. The conditions evaluated in this study were: barefoot walking at comfortable and slow speed, toe and shod walking using a stationary camera setup and barefoot walking at comfortable speed using a moving camera setup. The GAITRite® was used as reference. RESULTS: High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC≥ 0.97; 95% lower limit confidence intervals (95% CIs) ≥ 0.77) were found between systems for step and stride length, and step, stance and stride time, across setups and conditions. Standard error of measurement and Bland-Altman repeatability coefficients were ≤ 2.4% and ≤ 6.3%, respectively. A minimum of 4 footsteps was required to obtain ICC >0.90 and coefficient of variation < 10%. For double support and swing time, ICCs were generally low (ICC≥ 0.21). Inter-rater reliability was excellent for step length, step and stance time (ICC≥ 0.94; lower limit 95% CIs ≥ 0.86). CONCLUSION: The spatiotemporal gait analysis system is valid and reliable for assessing spatiotemporal parameters in different walking conditions. However, the validity of double support and swing time could not be confirmed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-463
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of rehabilitation medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Gait
  • Motion capture
  • Reproducibility of results
  • Spatio-temporal analysis
  • Video recording

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