Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

Sylvaine Cordier, Alain Bergeret, Janine Goujard, Marie Catherine Ha, Ségolène Aymé, Fabrizio Bianchi, Elisa Calzolari, Hermien E.K. De Walle, Robin Knill-Jones, Silvia Candela, Ian Dale, Brigitte Dananché, Catherine De Vigan, Joëlle Fevotte, Gert Kiel, Laurence Mandereau, J. Pompili, A. Nielsen, M. C. Cornel, E. Y. HaayerM. Y.M.C. Smeets, T. M. Pal, V. Vodovar, O. Boiron, A. Seniori-Constantini, A. Scarpelli

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Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during pregnancy as part of a multicenter case-control study, conducted in six regions in Europe. The study comprised 984 cases of major congenital malformations and 1,134 controls matched for place and date of birth. Interviews of the mothers provided information about occupation during pregnancy, sociodemographic variables, and other potential risk factors (medical history, tobacco, alcohol, drugs). A chemist specializing in glycol ethers evaluated exposure during pregnancy, using the job description given by the mother, without knowledge of case or control status. We classified malformations into 22 subgroups. The overall odds ratio (OR) of congenital' malformation associated with glycol ether exposure was 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.90], after adjustment for several potential confounders. The association with exposure to glycol ethers appeared particularly strong in three subgroups: neural tube defects (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.16-3.24), multiple anomalies (OR - 2.00; 95% CI = 1.24 3.23), and cleft lip (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.11-3.73). In this last subgroup, risk, especially of an isolated defect, tended to increase with level of exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-363
Number of pages9
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Birth defects
  • Glycol ethers
  • Multiple anomalies
  • Neural tube defects
  • Occupational exposure
  • Oral clefts
  • Parental Exposures

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