Objectives: We assessed the impacts of COVID-19 on multiple life domains across socio-demographic groups in Netherlands. Methods: After the first COVID-19 wave, we distributed online questionnaires among 13,031 participants of the multi-ethnic HELIUS cohort. Questionnaires contained questions on changes in income status, healthy behaviors, mental health, and access to non-COVID-19 health care. We then calculated differences in adjusted proportions of participants that reported negative changes across multiple life domains by migration background, age, sex, education, and occupation. Results: 4,450 individuals (35%) responded, of which 4,294 were included. Older populations and men seemed to be less vulnerable to negative changes in multiple life domains during the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the pre-pandemic period, while populations with a migration background and lower education/occupation groups seemed to be more vulnerable to negative changes. Conclusion: Not all populations vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality are also more vulnerable to COVID-19 impacts across multiple other life domains. Targeted interventions are needed in socio-demographic groups that are most impacted by COVID-19 in various life domains to prevent a further increase of their already increased risk of chronic diseases after the pandemic.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1604665
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2022


  • COVID-19
  • ethnic minority
  • impact
  • long-term conditions
  • migration
  • social determinants of health
  • vulnerable populations

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