Cross-cultural validation of the Functional Vision Questionnaire for Children and Young People (FVQ_CYP) with visual impairment in the Dutch population: Challenges and opportunities

Ellen B.M. Elsman, Valerija Tadić, Carel F.W. Peeters, Ger H.M.B. Van Rens, Jugnoo S. Rahi, Ruth M.A. Van Nispen

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Background: To assess cross-cultural validity between Dutch and English versions of the FVQ_CYP, a patient-reported outcome measure developed in the United Kingdom (UK) for children and adolescents with (severe) visual impairment or blindness (VI for brevity) to measure functional vision. Methods: The 36-item FVQ_CYP was translated and adapted into Dutch using standard guidelines. The questionnaire was administered to Dutch children and adolescents aged 7-17 years (N = 253) with impaired vision (no restrictions regarding acuity). Data were compared to existing UK data of children and adolescents aged 10-15 years (N = 91) with VI (acuity LogMar worse than 0.48). As with the original UK FVQ_CYP validation, a rating scale model (RSM) was applied to the Dutch data. Results: Minor adaptations were needed in translation-rounds. Significant differences in item responses were found between the Dutch and UK data. Item response theory assumptions were met, but fit to the RSM was unsatisfactory. Therefore, psychometric properties of the Dutch FVQ_CYP were analysed irrespective of the original model and criteria used. A graded response model led to the removal of 12 items due to missing data, low information, overlapping content and limited relevance to Dutch children. Fit indices for the remaining 24 items were adequate. Conclusions: Differences in population characteristics, distribution of responses, non-invariance at the model level and small sample sizes challenged the cross-cultural validation process. However, the Dutch adapted FVQ_CYP showed high measurement precision and broad coverage of items measuring children's functional vision. The underlying reasons for differences between countries in instrument performance are discussed with implications for future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number221
JournalBMC medical research methodology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Dec 2019


  • Children
  • Cross-cultural validation
  • Differential item functioning
  • Functional vision
  • Item response theory
  • Visual impairment

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