CXCL8 and CCL20 Enhance Osteoclastogenesis via Modulation of Cytokine Production by Human Primary Osteoblasts

P. Verschueren, W.F. Lems, F.P. Luyten, J. Klein-Nulend, N. Bravenboer

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Abstract

Generalized osteoporosis is common in patients with inflammatory diseases, possibly because of circulating inflammatory factors that affect osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity. Serum levels of the inflammatory factors CXCL8 and CCL20 are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis, but whether these factors affect bone metabolism is unknown. We hypothesized that CXCL8 and CCL20 decrease osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and enhance osteoblast-mediated osteoclast formation and activity. Human primary osteoblasts were cultured with or without CXCL8 (2-200 pg/ml) or CCL20 (5-500 pg/ml) for 14 days. Osteoblast proliferation and gene expression of matrix proteins and cytokines were analyzed. Osteoclast precursors were cultured with CXCL8 (200 pg/ml) and CCL20 (500 pg/ml), or with conditioned medium (CM) from CXCL8 and CCL20-treated osteoblasts with or without IL-6 inhibitor. After 3 weeks osteoclast formation and activity were determined. CXCL8 (200 pg/ml) and CCL20 (500 pg/ml) enhanced mRNA expression of KI67 (2.5-2.7-fold), ALP (1.6-1.7-fold), and IL-6 protein production (1.3-1.6-fold) by osteoblasts. CXCL8-CM enhanced the number of osteoclasts with 3-5 nuclei (1.7-fold), and with >5 nuclei (3-fold). CCL20-CM enhanced the number of osteoclasts with 3-5 nuclei (1.3-fold), and with >5 nuclei (2.8-fold). IL-6 inhibition reduced the stimulatory effect of CXCL8-CM and CCL20-CM on formation of osteoclasts. In conclusion, CXCL8 and CCL20 did not decrease osteoblast proliferation or gene expression of matrix proteins. CXCL8 and CCL20 did not directly affect osteoclastogenesis. However, CXCL8 and CCL20 enhanced osteoblastmediated osteoclastogenesis, partly via IL-6 production, suggesting that CXCL8 and CCL20 may contribute to osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis by affecting bone cell communication. Copyright:
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0131041
Number of pages18
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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