Defining the aesthetic range of normal symmetry for lip and nose features in 5-year-old children using the computer-based program symnose

Nirvana S. S. Kornmann, Robin A. Tan, Frans J. Mulder, Joseph T. Hardwicke, Bruce M. Richard, Brian B. Pigott, Ronald W. Pigott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To provide a normal comparison group against which to judge symmetry results after cleft surgery and to introduce the thin lip correction (TLC) feature in SymNose. A lip–aspect ratio algorithm has been added to the latest version of SymNose to compensate for the higher degree of overlap in thicker lips when compared to thin lips. Design: Retrospective analysis of symmetry in healthy participants, using the computer-based program SymNose on both anteroposterior (AP) and base view images. Photographs of 91 noncleft children were traced twice by 3 independent investigators experienced with SymNose. Participants: Five-year-old healthy participants from a local state school in Tavistock (West Devon, United Kingdom). Main Outcome Measure: Asymmetry expressed as the perimeter mismatch percentage for nose and lip features on AP view images and for nose features on base view images. Results: The perimeter mismatch reference range for the nose (AP view) was 2.65% to 30.91%, for the lip 2.13% to 15.44%, for the nose (base view) 1.69% to 14.84%, for the nostrils 4.68% to 26.6%, and for the width–height ratio 1.15% to 1.80%. The perimeter mismatch percentage for the lip without TLC was significantly higher compared to the perimeter mismatch percentage with TLC (P < .001). Conclusion: This article provides a noncleft reference range for all perimeters drawn from SymNose against which to compare results after cleft surgery at 5 years of age. Furthermore, it shows the importance of correcting for variance in lip volume per child.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)799-805
Number of pages7
JournalCleft palate-craniofacial journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Cleft lip
  • Normal controls
  • SymNose
  • Thin lip compensation

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