Defining trained immunity and its role in health and disease

Mihai G. Netea, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Luis B. Barreiro, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Maziar Divangahi, Elaine Fuchs, Leo A. B. Joosten, Jos W. M. van der Meer, Musa M. Mhlanga, Willem J. M. Mulder, Niels P. Riksen, Andreas Schlitzer, Joachim L. Schultze, Christine Stabell Benn, Joseph C. Sun, Ramnik J. Xavier, Eicke Latz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Immune memory is a defining feature of the acquired immune system, but activation of the innate immune system can also result in enhanced responsiveness to subsequent triggers. This process has been termed ‘trained immunity’, a de facto innate immune memory. Research in the past decade has pointed to the broad benefits of trained immunity for host defence but has also suggested potentially detrimental outcomes in immune-mediated and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we define ‘trained immunity’ as a biological process and discuss the innate stimuli and the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming events that shape the induction of trained immunity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-388
Number of pages14
JournalNature Reviews. Immunology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020

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