Determinants of depression in chronic stroke: A prospective cohort study

Ingrid van de Port, Gert Kwakkel, Margje Bruin, Eline Lindeman

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60 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify factors that are significantly related to depression in chronic stroke patients.

METHODS: Prospective cohort study of stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation. A total of 165 first ever stroke patients over 18 years of age were assessed at one and three years post stroke. Depression was determined by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Patients with scores >/=16 were classified as depressed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify prognostic factors for depression.

RESULTS: At three years post stroke, 19% of the patients were depressed. Bivariate analysis showed significant associations between post-stroke depression and type of stroke, fatigue, motor function of the leg and arm, activities of daily living (ADL) independency and instrumental ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that depression was predicted by one-year instrumental ADL and fatigue. Sensitivity of the model was 63%, while specificity was 85%.

CONCLUSIONS: The present prospective cohort study showed that depression three years after stroke can be predicted by instrumental ADL and fatigue one year post stroke. Recognition of prognostic factors in patients at risk may help clinicians to apply interventions aimed at preventing depression in chronic stroke.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-358
Number of pages6
JournalDisability and rehabilitation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2007


  • Cerebrovascular accident
  • Depression
  • Prognosis

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