43 Citations (Scopus)


In 2014, an extensive review discussing the major steps of cardiac development focusing on growth, formation of primary and chamber myocardium and the development of the cardiac electrical system, was published. Molecular genetic lineage analyses have since furthered our insight in the developmental origin of the various component parts of the heart, which currently can be unambiguously identified by their unique molecular phenotype. Moreover, genetic, molecular and cell biological analyses have driven insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of the different cardiac components. Here, we build on our previous review and provide an insight into the molecular mechanistic revelations that have forwarded the field of cardiac development. Despite the enormous advances in our knowledge over the last decade, the development of congenital cardiac malformations remains poorly understood. The challenge for the next decade will be to evaluate the different developmental processes using newly developed molecular genetic techniques to further unveil the gene regulatory networks operational during normal and abnormal cardiac development.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-22
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • cardiac development
  • cardiac growth
  • epicardial development
  • septation
  • valve development

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