Diabetes IN develOpment (DINO): the bio-psychosocial, family functioning and parental well-being of youth with type 1 diabetes: a longitudinal cohort study design.

M.M.A. Eilander, M. de Wit, J. Rotteveel, H.J. Aanstoot, W.M. Waarde, E.C. Houdijk, M. Luman, R. Nuboer, J. Oosterlaan, P. Winterdijk, F.J. Snoek

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BACKGROUND: Strict glycemic control during adolescence decreases the risk of developing complications later in life, even if this level of control is not maintained afterwards. However, the majority of adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are in poor control and so far medical or psychological interventions have shown limited success. Adolescence is characterized by major biological, psychosocial, cognitive and parent-child relationship changes and the complex interaction between these developmental trajectories, and its impact on health outcomes is still poorly understood. A specific topic of interest in this context is the timing of diagnosis. The longitudinal study DINO (Diabetes IN develOpment) aims to examine: 1) If and how the onset of T1D before vs. during puberty results in different outcomes of glycemic control, self-management, psychological functioning and diabetes-related quality of life. 2) The timing of onset of disturbed eating behavior, its risk factors and its prospective course in relation to glycemic and psychological consequences. 3) If and how the onset of T1D before vs. during puberty results in different family functioning and parental well-being. 4) If and how the cognitive development of youth with T1D relates to glycemic control and diabetes self-management.

METHODS/DESIGN: DINO, a longitudinal multi-center cohort study is conducted in youth with T1D in the age range 8-15 years at baseline. Participants will be divided into two subgroups: pre-pubertal and pubertal. Both groups will be followed for 3 years with assessments based on a bio-psychosocial model of diabetes, scheduled at baseline, 12 months, 24 months and 36 months examining the biological, psychosocial -including disturbed eating behaviors- and cognitive development, family functioning and parental well-being.

DISCUSSION: A better understanding of how the different trajectories affect one another will help to gain insight in the protective and risk factors for glycemic outcomes and in who needs which support at what moment in time. First results are expected in 2016.

Original languageEnglish
Article number82
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Pediatrics
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2015


  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior/psychology
  • Age of Onset
  • Cognition
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood
  • Family/psychology
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Parents/psychology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Puberty
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Care/psychology

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