Directing CAR T cells towards the tumor vasculature for the treatment of solid tumors

Parvin Akbari, Afroditi Katsarou, Roxanna Daghighian, Lotte W. H. G. van Mil, Elisabeth J. M. Huijbers, Arjan W. Griffioen, Judy R. van Beijnum

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13 Citations (Scopus)


For successful application of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in solid tumors, major hurdles have to be overcome. CAR T cells have to cross the vascular barrier, which is hampered by the anergic state of the tumor vasculature, characterized by suppressed levels of leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelium. Additional immunosuppressive mechanisms in the solid tumor microenvironment can affect infiltration, activity and persistence of CAR T cells. Redirecting CAR T cells towards the tumor vasculature poses a possible solution, as molecular targets of tumor endothelial cells can be directly engaged from within the blood. In this review, we discuss recent advances in CAR T cell therapy against solid tumors, with a focus on targeting the tumor vasculature. Furthermore, we discuss opportunities to overcome challenges and barriers through engineering of CAR T cells to enhance trafficking, safety and efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number188701
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • Angiogenesis
  • CAR T cell
  • Cancer
  • Immune suppression
  • Tumor microenvironment

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