E-nergEYEze, a vision-specific eHealth intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy and self-management to reduce fatigue in adults with visual impairment: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Manon H. J. Veldman, Hilde P. A. van der Aa, Christina Bode, Hans Knoop, Carel T. J. Hulshof, Marc Koopmanschap, Edwin Stavleu, Ger H. M. B. van Rens, Ruth M. A. van Nispen

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: More than half of the adults with visual impairment experience severe symptoms of fatigue, with a negative impact on daily life. Since there is no evidence-based treatment to reduce fatigue in adults with visual impairment, we developed E-nergEYEze, an eHealth intervention based on cognitive behavioral therapy and self-management tailored to the needs of visually impaired adults. The aim is to describe the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial testing E-nergEYEze. Methods: A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to investigate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of E-nergEYEze to reduce fatigue severity compared to care as usual from a healthcare and societal perspective. A total of 172 severely fatigued adults with visual impairment will be recruited and randomized to either the E-nergEYEze intervention plus care as usual or to care as usual only (ratio 1:1). Inclusion criteria are having a visual impairment, experiencing severe fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength – subscale Fatigue Severity: CIS-FS > 35), being 18 years or older, understanding the Dutch language, and having access to the internet. The intervention consists of one face-to-face session and a computer training followed by internet-based modules with information and assignments on coping with fatigue. During this 5-month intervention, participants will be digitally supported by a social worker. All measurements will be administered at baseline, after 6 and 12 months, and additionally, those related to cost-effectiveness at 3 and 9 months. The primary outcome is fatigue severity (CIS-FS). Discussion: Severe fatigue on top of visual impairment compromises quality of life and is associated with incremental societal costs that largely determine the economic burden of low vision or blindness. E-nergEYEze contributes to the evidence base of potentially feasible interventions to reduce the important health-related consequences of vision loss and could fulfill the gap in knowledge, skills and treatment options for low vision services. Trial registration: Dutch Trial Register NTR7764. Registered on 28 May 2019.
Original languageEnglish
Article number966
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Adult
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Fatigue
  • Fatigue/diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Self-management
  • Telemedicine
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vision Disorders
  • Vision, Low
  • Visual impairment
  • eHealth

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