Early lesion detection with 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT in 248 patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer

M. Wondergem, B. H.E. Jansen, F. M. van der Zant, T. M. van der Sluis, R. J.J. Knol, L. W.M. van Kalmthout, O. S. Hoekstra, R. J.A. van Moorselaar, D. E. Oprea-Lager, A. N. Vis

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Purpose: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT is increasingly used in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (BCR), mostly using gallium-68 (168Ga)-labelled radiotracers. Alternatively, fluorine-18 (18F)-labelled PSMA tracers are available, such as 18F-DCFPyL, which offer enhanced image quality and therefore potentially increased detection of small metastases. In this study we evaluate the lesion detection efficacy of 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT in patients with BCR and determine the detection efficacy as a function of their PSA value. Methods: A total of 248 consecutive patients were evaluated and underwent scanning with 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT for BCR between November 2016 and 2018 in two hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were examined after radical prostatectomy (52%), external-beam radiation therapy (42%) or brachytherapy (6%). Imaging was performed 120 min after injection of a median dose of 311 MBq 18F-DCFPyL. Results: In 214 out of 248 PET/CT scans (86.3%), at least one lesion suggestive of cancer recurrence was detected (‘positive scan’). Scan positivity increased with higher PSA values: 17/29 scans (59%) with PSA values <0.5 ng/ml; 20/29 (69%) with PSA 0.5 to <1.0 ng/ml; 35/41 (85%) with PSA 1.0 to <2.0 ng/ml; 69/73 (95%) with PSA 2.0 to <5.0 ng/ml; and 73/76 (96%) with PSA ≥5.0 ng/ml. Interestingly, suspicious lesions outside the prostatic fossa were detected in 39–50% of patients with PSA <1.0 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy (i.e. candidates for salvage radiotherapy). Conclusion: 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT offers early detection of lesions in patients with BCR, even at PSA levels <0.5 ng/ml. These results appear to be comparable to those reported for 68Ga-PSMA and 18F-PSMA-1007, with potentially increased detection efficacy compared to 68Ga-PSMA for patients with PSA <2.0.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1911-1918
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • Biochemically recurrent
  • PSMA
  • Prostate cancer

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