Effect of Coronary Artery Disease on COVID-19—Prognosis and Risk Assessment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Lukasz Szarpak, Malgorzata Mierzejewska, Jonasz Jurek, Anna Kochanowska, Aleksandra Gasecka, Zenon Truszewski, Michal Pruc, Natasza Blek, Zubaid Rafique, Krzysztof J. Filipiak, Andrea Denegri, Milosz J. Jaguszewski

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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Patients with pre-existing CAD were shown to have a more severe course of COVID-19, but this association has not been clarified. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the association between CAD and COVID-19 outcomes. We searched Scopus, Medline (PubMed), Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to November 2nd, 2021. There were 62 studies with a total population of 49,286 patients included in the meta-analysis. CAD occurrence in survivor vs. non-survivor groups varied and amounted to 9.2% vs. 22.9%, respectively (OR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.29 to 0.39; I2 = 70%; p < 0.001). CAD was also associated with increased severity of COVID-19 disease and was (10.8% vs. 5.6%, respectively, for severe vs. non-severe groups (OR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.59 to 3.27; I2 = 72%; p < 0.001). The role of history of CAD in mortality and severe condition in COVID-19 presents itself as prominent—although a risk of bias in retrospective trials needs to be assessed, in case of our metaanalysis the statistically significant results when it comes to higher mortality among patients with CAD compared to non-CAD patients, a more severe condition observed in patients with CAD, and a visibly more frequent admission to intensive care unit in patients with CAD, it seems that an incidence of cardiovascular events plays a role in COVID-19 prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number221
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • CAD
  • COVID-19
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Novel coronavirus
  • Systematic review

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