Effectiveness and feasibility of Socratic feedback to increase awareness of deficits in patients with acquired brain injury: Four single-case experimental design (SCED) studies

Anne-Claire M. C. Schrijnemaekers, Ieke Winkens, Sascha M. C. Rasquin, Annette Verhaeg, Rudolf W. H. M. Ponds, Caroline M. van Heugten

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Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a Socratic feedback programme to improve awareness of deficits in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Setting: Rehabilitation centre. Participants: Four patients with ABI with awareness problems. Design: A series of single-case experimental design studies with random intervention starting points (A–B + maintenance design). Main measures: Rate of trainer-feedback and self-control behaviour on everyday tasks, patient competency rating scale (PCRS), self-regulating skills interview (SRSI), hospital anxiety and depression scale. Results: All patients needed less trainer feedback, the change was significant in 3 out of 4. One patient increased in overt self-corrective behaviour. SRSI performance increased in all patients (medium to strong effect size), and PCRS performance increased in two patients (medium and strong effect size). Mood and anxiety levels were elevated in one patient at the beginning of the training and decreased to normal levels at the end of the training. The feasibility of the programme was scored 9 out of 10. Conclusions: The Socratic feedback method is a promising intervention for improving awareness of deficits in patients with ABI. Controlled studies with larger populations are needed to draw more solid conclusions about the effect of this method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-612
JournalNeuropsychological Rehabilitation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

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