Effectiveness of 2',2'difluorodeoxycytidine (Gemcitabine) combined with hyperthermia in rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo

C. van Bree, C. Beumer, H. M. Rodermond, J. Haveman, P. J. Bakker

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To investigate the schedule-dependency of 2',2'difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC, Gemcitabine) combined with hyperthermia (HT), in vitro as well as in vivo. Rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with various concentrations of dFdC for 70 min, 4 h and 24 h. After various time intervals HT (60 min at 43 degrees C) was applied. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assays. Female Wag/Rij rats bearing R-1 tumours on the hind limbs were treated with dFdC (20 mg/kg), with locally applied HT (60 min at 43 degrees C) or with a combined treatment using different time intervals (0, 24 and 48 h). Tumour growth delay (TGD) and normal tissue toxicity were assessed. With dFdC alone, significant cytotoxicity was observed after a 24 h-exposure. Except for the 24 h-exposure, HT reduced the cytotoxicity of dFdC in simultaneous applications. An enhanced cytotoxic effect was found when HT was applied 20 h after a 4 h-incubation with dFdC. In vivo, HT applied 48 h after dFdC-administration resulted in potentiation of the effect of dFdC with respect to TGD without an increase in toxicity. The efficacy of dFdC combined with HT is schedule-dependent both in vitro and in vivo. The addition of HT enhances the effectiveness of dFdC in the R-1 tumour model
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-556
JournalInternational journal of hyperthermia
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1999

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