Effectiveness of HypoAware, a Brief Partly Web-Based Psychoeducational Intervention for Adults With Type 1 and Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes and Problematic Hypoglycemia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Stefanie M. P. A. Rondags, Maartje de Wit, Jos W. Twisk, Frank J. Snoek

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To establish the effectiveness of a brief, partly web-based group intervention, HypoAware, in patients with problematic hypoglycemia, in terms of the reduction of severe hypoglycemic episodes, impaired hypoglycemia awareness, and worries. A two-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in insulin-treated patients with problematic hypoglycemia in eight Dutch clinics comparing HypoAware with care as usual. Primary outcomes included self-reported severe hypoglycemia, impaired hypoglycemia awareness (Gold score), and worries and distress about hypoglycemia (Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II/Problem Areas In Diabetes scale hypo-item), assessed at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up. We used t tests, nonparametric tests, and intention-to-treat generalized estimation equation (GEE) analyses with linear, logistic, and Poisson or negative binomial models. We enrolled 137 participants. Adjusted GEE analyses over four time points showed a nonsignificant 33% fewer episodes of severe hypoglycemia in the HypoAware group compared with the control group (relative risk [RR] 0.67 [95% CI 0.39-1.16], P = 0.150); a significant reduced odds of impaired awareness (odds ratio 0.38 [95% CI 0.15-0.95], P = 0.038), a trend toward 20% fewer worries about hypoglycemia (RR 0.80 [95% CI 0.64-1.01], P = 0.059), and a significant 30% less hypo-distress (RR 0.70 [95% CI 0.56-0.88], P = 0.002). Over the 6-month study duration, participants experienced a median of 2.5 events of severe hypoglycemia (interquartile range [IQR] 1-10) in the control condition versus 1 event (IQR 0-6.5) in the HypoAware group (P = 0.030). There was no significant change in HbA1c level within and between both groups. HypoAware resulted in fewer severe hypoglycemic episodes, significantly improved hypoglycemia awareness, and less hypo-distress in comparison with usual care, and deserves further dissemination
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2190-2196
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016

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