Effects of tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin on peripheral lymphoid tissue development

R Ettinger, R Mebius, J L Browning, S A Michie, S van Tuijl, G Kraal, W van Ewijk, H O McDevitt

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Previously, we have reported that neutralization of surface lymphotoxin (LT-alphabeta) in mice which expressed an LT-beta receptor-Fc fusion protein, driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter, resulted in an array of anatomic abnormalities. We now report that mice which express a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor p60-Fc fusion protein (which neutralizes TNF and soluble LT-alpha3 activity) develop unique lymphoid abnormalities. Our data demonstrate that some aspects of peripheral lymphoid organ development require both surface LT-alphabeta and TNF interacting with their specific receptors. However, these related cytokines are also capable of signaling distinct developmental events. Splenic MAdCAM-1 expression, follicular dendritic cell localization and normal Peyer's patch development all require both surface LT-alphabeta and TNF activity. Marginal zone formation and splenic B cell localization primarily require surface LT-alphabeta-LT-beta receptor interactions. Primary follicle formation was dependent upon TNF receptor(s) engagement. Interestingly spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches from TNF receptor p60-Fc-expressing mice all develop different abnormalities, suggesting distinct pathways of development in these lymphoid organs. Thymus development appears to be independent of these signaling pathways. These results demonstrate that TNF and LT are crucial for normal peripheral, but not central lymphoid organ development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-41
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Immunology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1998


  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD/analysis
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Dendritic Cells/immunology
  • Female
  • Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/analysis
  • Immunoglobulins/analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lymphoid Tissue/chemistry
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha/immunology
  • Membrane Proteins/immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Mucoproteins/analysis
  • Peyer's Patches/growth & development
  • Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing/chemistry
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/analysis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins/analysis
  • Signal Transduction
  • Spleen/chemistry
  • Thymus Gland/growth & development
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology

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