Daratumumab is active both as a single agent and in combination with other agents in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, the majority of patients will develop daratumumab-refractory disease, which carries a poor prognosis. Since daratumumab also has immunomodulatory effects, addition of the PD-L1 blocking antibody durvalumab at the time of progression may reverse daratumumab-resistance. The efficacy and safety of daratumumab and durvalumab in daratumumab-refractory relapsed/refractory MM patients was evaluated in this prospective, single-arm phase 2 study (NCT03000452). None of the 18 enrolled patients achieved PR or better. The frequency of serious adverse events was 38.9%, with one patient experiencing an immune related adverse event (grade 2 hyperthyroidism). No infusion-related reactions were observed. Analysis of tumor-and immune cell characteristics was performed on bone marrow samples obtained at baseline and during treatment. Daratumumab combined with durvalumab reduced the frequency of regulatory T-cells and decreased the proportion of T-cells expressing LAG3 and CD8+ T-cells expressing TIM-3, without altering T-and NK-cell frequencies. Durvalumab did not affect tumor cell characteristics associated with daratumumab resistance. In conclusion, the addition of durvalumab to daratumumab following development of daratumumab-resistance was associated with an acceptable toxicity profile, but was not effective. This indicates that inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway at the time of daratumumab-resistance is insufficient to reverse daratumumab-resistance.
- Checkpoint in-hibitor
- Multiple myeloma