Introduction: As the role of (neuro)inflammation in depression pathophysiology is emerging, augmentation of antidepressant treatments with anti-inflammatory drugs have shown beneficial results, but not consistently across all studies. Inconsistencies may be due to depression biological and clinical heterogeneity. Immuno-Metabolic Depression (IMD) has been put forward as a form of depression characterized by the clustering of low-grade inflammation, metabolic dysregulations and atypical, energy-related symptoms (overeating, weight gain, hypersomnia, fatigue and leaden paralysis). IMD features are present in ∼30% of patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). By selecting these specific patients, directly targeting inflammation may reduce depressive symptoms. Methods: and analysis INFLAMED is a double-blind randomized controlled trial. 140 MDD patients with IMD characteristics (MDD with Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) ≥ 26, IDS atypical, energy related symptoms ≥6, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) > 1 mg/L) will receive either 400 mg celecoxib per day or matching placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Biological, physical and interview data will be collected after 2, 6 and 12 weeks of starting the intervention. Questionnaires will be sent out bi-weekly during the study period. The main study outcome is the IDS (30-item self-report) total score during 12-week follow-up. Secondary study outcomes include response, remission, adverse side effects, symptom profiles (atypical, energy-related symptoms), fatigue, food craving, sleep, anxiety symptoms, functioning, pain, and optionally, microbiome composition. Explorative analyses will be performed on the role of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Ethics and dissemination: This protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Review Board of the Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc (2022.0015) on 2-6-2022, as well as by the competent authority in The Netherlands: CCMO, on 3-8-2022.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100585
Pages (from-to)100585
JournalBrain, behavior, & immunity - health
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Anti-inflammatory medication
  • Celecoxib
  • Inflammation
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Metabolism
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Treatment

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