Background: HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated perinatally HIV-infected patients (PHIV+) remains unknown due to the young age of this population. Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) has been established as an independent causal risk factor for CVD in the general population but has not been well established in the population of PHIV+. Methods: We cross-sectionally compared lipid profiles, including nonfasting Lp(a), together with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides between 35 cART-treated PHIV+ children aged 8-18 years and 37 controls who were matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. We explored associations between Lp(a) and disease-and treatment-related factors (inflammation, monocyte activation, and vascular), biomarkers, and neuroimaging outcomes using linear regression models. Results: PHIV+ children had significantly higher levels of Lp(a) compared with controls (median, 43.6 [21.6-82.4] vs 21.8 [16.8-46.6] mg/dL; P =. 033). Other lipid levels were comparable between groups. Additional assessment of apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein CIII, apolipoprotein E, and APOE genotype revealed no significant differences. Higher Lp(a) levels were associated with higher plasma apoB levels and with lower monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and TG levels in PHIV+ children. Lp(a) was not associated with HIV-or cART-related variables or with neuroimaging outcomes. Conclusions: cART-treated PHIV+ children appear to have higher levels of Lp(a) compared with ethnicity-matched controls, which may implicate higher CVD risk in this population. Future research should focus on the association between Lp(a) and (sub)clinical CVD measurements in cART-treated PHIV+ patients. Dutch Trial Register number: NRT4074.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofz301
Pages (from-to)ofz301
JournalOpen forum infectious diseases
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 5 Oct 2019


  • MRI
  • cardiovascular disease risk
  • lipids
  • lipoprotein(a)
  • perinatal HIV infection

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