Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees

P. L. Nara, L. Smit, N. Dunlop, W. Hatch, M. Merges, D. Waters, J. Kelliher, R. C. Gallo, P. J. Fischinger, J. Goudsmit

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Emergence in two chimpanzees of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB variants resistant to neutralization by the preexisting antibody is described. Viruses isolated from the HIV-1 IIIB gp120-vaccinated and -challenged animal were more resistant to neutralization by the chimpanzee's own serum than viruses isolated from the naive infected animal, indicating immune pressure as the selective mechanism. However, all reisolated viruses were 16- to 256-fold more neutralization resistant than the inoculum virus to antibodies binding to the third variable domain (V3) of the HIV-1 external envelope. Early chimpanzee serum samples that neutralized the inoculum strain but not the reisolated viruses were found to bind an HIV-1 IIIB common nonapeptide (IQRGPGRAF) derived from the gp120 isolate-specific V3 domain shown to induce isolate-specific neutralization in other animals. Amplification of the V3 coding sequence by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequence analysis of the neutralization-resistant variants obtained from in vivo-infected animals indicated that early resistance to neutralization by an HIV-1 IIIB monoclonal antibody (0.5 beta) was conferred by changes outside the direct binding site for the selective neutralizing antibody. The reisolated neutralization-resistant isolates consisted of the lower-replication-competent virus subpopulations of the HIV-1 IIIB stock, as confirmed by biological and sequence analyses. In vitro passage of the HIV-1 IIIB stock through chimpanzee and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures void of HIV-specific antibody resulted in homogenic amplification of the more-replication-competent subpopulation preexisting in the original viral stock, suggesting a role for the immune system in suppressing the more-replication-competent viruses
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3779-3791
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1990

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