Error and post-error processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An electrical neuroimaging study: An electrical neuroimaging study

T. W. P. Janssen, N. van Atteveldt, J. Oosterlaan

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Objective: Inaccurate and inconsistent response styles in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been observed in a wide variety of cognitive tasks, in line with regulatory deficit models of ADHD. Event-related potential (ERP) studies of error processing have provided evidence for these models, but are limited in specificity. We aimed to improve the isolation, localization and identification of error (self-monitoring and adaptive control) and post-error (implementation of cognitive control) processing in ADHD. Methods: ERPs were obtained for 46 ADHD and 51 typically developing (TD) children using the stop-signal task. Response-locked error (Ne and Pe) and stimulus-locked post-error (N2) components were compared between groups. Ne/Pe were corrected for preceding stimulus overlap and group differences were localized. Results: Ne was intact, while Pe amplitude was markedly reduced in children with ADHD (ηp2 = 0.14). Pe differences were localized in the dorsal posterior/midcingulate (BA31/24) cortex. While the TD group showed increased N2 amplitude in post-error trials (ηp2 = 0.24), localized in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and angular gyrus, the ADHD group did not. Conclusions: Self-regulation deficits in ADHD are associated with later stages of error processing and subsequent implementation of cognitive control. Significance: We contribute to the literature by further specifying error processing deficits in ADHD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2236-2249
Number of pages14
JournalClinical neurophysiology
Issue number9
Early online date14 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • ADHD
  • Error-processing
  • Event-related potentials
  • Source-localization

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