ESPE and PES International Survey of Centers and Clinicians Delivering Specialist Care for Children and Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

Nicos Skordis, Gary Butler, Martine C. De Vries, Katharina Main, Sabine E. Hannema

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Increasing numbers of children and adolescents seek medical care because they experience incongruence between their physical sex and their gender identity. Methods: The ESPE working group on gender dysphoria (GD) undertook a survey to investigate the structure and the type of medical care in centers that offer specialist care for transgender adolescents. Results: The personnel of each center varied from country to country, and a nationally organized network or plan for managing GD did not exist in all centers. The majority of young people were transitioning from female to male, and the number of new referrals increased remarkably during the past 3 years. Almost all centers follow the guidelines issued by the Endocrine Society and World Professional Association for Transgender Health. GnRH analogues were used as the initial treatment in the majority of the centers. The age from which adolescents are treated with gender-affirming hormones varied between centers. Several legal restrictions that concern or influence the treatment of children and adolescents with GD were finally addressed. Conclusion: This first international survey examining the variations in availability and provisions of services for children and adolescents with GD serves as a starting block for further dialogue and future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-331
Number of pages6
JournalHormone Research in Paediatrics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • Adolescents
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Gender-affirming hormones

Cite this