ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Wasting in HIV and other chronic infectious diseases

J. Ockenga, R. Grimble, C. Jonkers-Schuitema, D. Macallan, J.-C. Melchior, H. P. Sauerwein, A. Schwenk, U. Süttmann

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Abstract

Undernutrition (wasting) is still frequent in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), despite recent decreases in the prevalence of undernutrition in western countries (as opposed to developing countries) due to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Undernutrition has been shown to have a negative prognostic effect independently of immunodeficiency and viral load. These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of enteral nutrition (EN) by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and tube feeding (TF) in HIV-infected patients. They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and is based on all relevant publications since 1985. Nutritional therapy is indicated when significant weight loss (>5% in 3 months) or a significant loss of body cell mass (>5% in 3 months) has occurred, and should be considered when the body mass index (BMI) is <18.5 kg/m(2). If normal food intake including nutritional counselling and optimal use of ONS cannot achieve an adequate nutrient intake, TF with standard formulae is indicated. Due to conflicting results from studies investigating the impact of immune-modulating formulae, these are not generally recommended. The results obtained in HIV patients may be extrapolated to other chronic infectious diseases, in the absence of available data
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-329
JournalClinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

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