8 Citations (Scopus)


The link between cystatin C and mortality independent of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in adults has prompted the “Shrunken Pore Syndrome” (SPS) hypothesis, where high serum cystatin C with normal creatinine is explained by smaller glomerular pores, through which creatinine can pass freely, while the larger cystatin C, beta-trace protein (BTP) and pro-inflammatory molecules are retained. This study set out to apply the definition of SPS to children. In 294 children who underwent inulin clearance (Cin) test, serum creatinine, cystatin C and BTP were measured. For all three markers eGFRx was calculated using the full age spectrum equations. The ratio eGFRcys/eGFRcrea was plotted against the error of eGFRBTP(%) (i.e. eGFRBTP-Cin)/Cin*100%). Patients with and without SPS according to different cut-off points of eGFRcys/eGFRcrea and eGFRcys/Cin (i.e. ≤0.6,0.7,0.8) were compared in terms of eGFRx, Cin, error of eGFRx(%) and eGFRBTP/eGFRcrea-ratio. The ratio eGFRcys/eGFRcrea and error of eGFRBTP(%) were positively correlated. The prevalence of SPS by eGFRcys/eGFRcrea with a cut-off of 0.6 was 4.8%. Patients with SPS had a more negative error of eGFRcys(%) and eGFRBTP(%) and higher Cin regardless of the definition. Overestimation of eGFRcrea in patients with SPS was only present when using the eGFRcys/eGFRcrea rather than the eGFRcys/Cin definition. Cystatin C and BTP are related independent of creatinine, suggesting glomerular pore size as a common denominator. The prevalence of SPS in children is comparable to adults. For research in SPS, a definition based on eGFRcys/exogenous clearance study may be useful to study the effect of SPS on creatinine metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-38
Number of pages7
JournalScandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2020


  • Cystatin C
  • creatinine
  • shrunken pore syndrome

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