Expert appraisal and prioritization of barriers to mHealth use for older adults living with Alzheimer's disease and related Dementias: A Delphi study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Introduction: Older adults living with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) can benefit from mHealth innovations in (daily) care. However, successful implementation and adoption of such innovations can be hindered by a lack of inclusive design. Inclusive design can be challenging, due to the variety of ADRD- and aging-related symptoms that can pose barriers to using mHealth. Previously, a literature-based model with 53 barriers to mHealth use for this population has been developed (“MHealth for OLder adults living with DEMentia – USability“ or MOLDEM-US). In this study, we aim to prioritize these through a Delphi study with ADRD experts (case managers, informal caregivers, hospital healthcare professionals, district nurses, and researchers). Methods: In the first round, participant characteristics and potentially new insights into barriers to mHealth use for older adults living with ADRD were gathered. The consensus questionnaire was submitted in the second round, containing barriers to mHealth use for this population (from MOLDEM-US) with questions inquiring its impact and frequency. In the third round, participants rejudged those barriers for which no consensus (<51 %) or minor consensus (51 % − 60 %) was reached. Results: Thirty-seven participants completed the three rounds of the study. Consensus was reached for eleven barriers after the second round, all having major impact and frequency: integration of functions during daily activities, perceived complexity, efficiency in seeing benefits, trust in own ability, restlessness and agitation, computer literacy, self confidence in using wearables, learnability, working memory, and visual acuity. Conclusion: After round three, consensus was achieved for all 53 barriers. Twenty-six barriers are considered to majorly affect mHealth use, most of which relate to cognition and frame of mind. This study contributes to the development of mHealth design guidelines that take into account the progressive and diverse ADRD- and aging-related symptoms negatively affecting mHealth implementation and adoption.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104845
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022


  • Delphi Technique
  • Dementia
  • Mobile Health
  • User-Centered Design
  • mHealth

Cite this